The modern discipline of psychology finds its roots in medicine and philosophy of the mid 1800s. Its methodologies became largely experimental in nature around the beginning of the 20th Century, and has since become known as “the science of mind and behavior”. Psychology is a broad discipline, stretching from the biological determinants of animal and human behavior through to the social psychology of intergroup relations. Although a lively and growing academic scientific discipline, psychology is also an applied discipline, such that many psychologists consider themselves “scientist-practitioners”. Applications range from clinical psychology through to the psychology of industry and organizations.

Within this category you will find sites related to the academic study and practice of psychology in all its forms. Sites concerned with products, services, or mental health information are listed elsewhere in the directory; in particular, if you are looking for counseling and psychotherapy providers or consumer information you should begin your search in Health/Mental_Health. In particular, general counseling sites may be found in Health/Mental_Health/Counseling_Services and provision of services for a specific locale may be found in Health/Mental_Health/Counseling_Services/Regional.

NO sites are accepted at this level. Please find a suitable subcategory for your site
Please submit your site to the most appropriate category as submitting to an incorrect category may delay review of your site.
Please submit only websites that have English language content to this category and its subcategories. If your site is in a language other than English, please submit it to the appropriate category of World.
Contains sites for the Psychology Departments of academic institutions offering higher education degrees.
Sites of Psychology Departments are welcome here, along with sites on how to apply for psychology graduate school. To ensure speedy placement of your site, please ensure your title and description are formatted like the others in the category. If your institution offers programs in a specific area of psychology, please submit your site directly to the relevant subcategory within Psychology.
Sites that are PRIMARILY associated with NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming). These include institutes, trainers, links, and communities. See sub-categories for more specifics.

Sites which sell consumer goods should be submitted to the appropriate subcategory in Shopping. If the shopping site has a substantial general information on NLP the informational component also can be listed in here.

Contains sites for national-level professional psychology organizations.
Sites for organizations concerning psychotherapy or other mental health approaches should be submitted to Health/Mental_Health/Organizations/. Regional-level sites should be submitted to the regional subcategory. Only sites for national-level professional psychology organizations should be submitted here.
The study of human and animal behavior as well as the method of utilizing observable behavior of organisms as a basis of data gathering, analysis, or inference.
Biological psychology is a cross-disciplinary field that integrates psychology, biology, and culture at the level of the human body. It emphasizes the key role of embodiment in human experience, development, self-identity, social function, and mental and physical health.

This category is for informational sites about the academic study and practice of psychology as it relates to children and young people.
Sites offering clinical psychology and therapy services should be submitted to the Regional part of the Directory.
Please submit your site to the most appropriate category. Submitting to an incorrect category may delay review of your site.
Please submit only websites that have English language content to this category and its subcategories. If your site is in a language other than English, please submit it to the appropriate category of World.
This category contains information related to scientific research in the fields of clinical psychology and counseling psychology. Content is aimed primarily at academic researchers rather than mental health consumers, and may include empirical assessment of novel treatment interventions.
Please submit only sites that are concerned with scientific research into clinical and counseling psychology and that are aimed at researchers, not consumers.

This category is NOT for the submission of sites related to mental health services. Sites relating to individual psychotherapists or practices should be submitted to the appropriate subcategory within Health/Mental_Health/Counseling_Services.

Cognitive Psychology concerns the experimental study of topics such as memory, language processing, judgment, reasoning, and thinking. Cognitive researchers are often grouped with those who study Sensation and Perception.
Please submit ONLY sites that strictly concern Cognitive Psychology. There are many other fields that study cognitive processes, so please find the most appropriate place. Check out the subcategories as well as these additional related categories:
Contains programs for forthcoming or previous psychology conferences, sorted in date order.
Sites for general psychology conferences are welcome here. If the conference is limited to a particular branch of psychology, please submit to the relevant Psychology subcategory.
Every one can learn how to be creative. It's like anything else, if you practice a lot you'll get good at it.
Developmental psychology is the branch of psychological science that studies the qualitative and quantitative changes individuals undergo as they traverse the life span. Developmental psychologists attempt to measure, explain and predict these changes from conception through the aging process in the areas of biological, social, emotional and cognitive growth. Developmental psychologists use experimental methods to describe changing behavior and clinical methods to treat problem behaviors.
Comprehensive and organized reference sites, often collections of links, related to the academic scientific study of psychology.
Please submit only sites which have significant English-language content relating to the science of psychology. Resources focused on mental health for the public should be submitted to Health/Mental_Health/Directories. If a site is primarily or only focused on a specific area (such as Clinical or Cognitive) it should be submitted to that specific area.
Dreams are a succession of images, thoughts, sounds, or emotions passing through the mind during sleep. The content and purpose of dreams are not fully understood, though they have been a topic of speculation and interest throughout recorded history. The scientific study of dreams is known as oneirology.
Submit only sites with content related to various dream and dreaming topics, including forums, books reviews, general learning resources and everything related to the culture of dreams.
Please submit only websites that have English language content to this category and its subcategories. If your site is in a language other than English, please submit it to the appropriate category of World.
Sites for and about psychology students and teachers that do not fit elsewhere.
Sites relating to education and psychology, such as sites about preparing for, deciding on, or being in degree programs. Sites should be about psychology as a whole or in general, such as sites including the breath equivalent to an introductory course at a university.

Schools, graduate programs, classes, or sites about applying for them should go in Psychology/Academic Programs. Schools or education about a particular aspect, area, or type of psychology should go in the appropriate area. See also the descriptions for the subcategories.

A list of Web sites about the profession and practice of school psychology.

Forensic psychology is concerned with the application of psychological knowledge and principles to legal issues, such as the reliability of evidence, the reliability of eyewitness testimony, the role of human memory, the psychology of decision-making (particularly group decision-making, as in juries), witness credibility, and so on.

Forensic psychology is generally distinguished from forensic psychiatry, which deals with legal questions such as the determination of sanity, issues of responsibility for acts committed, and so on.

Please submit sites concerned with the academic study of forensic psychology.

Sites for expert witnesses or for individuals or companies offering some legal service will not be listed in this category, and instead should be submitted elsewhere (e.g., Society/Law/Services/Expert_Witnesses/Psychology/).

This category lists psychological sites concerned with the science and research of gender and sexuality.
This category lists psychological sites concerned with the science and research of gender and sexuality. If your site has no scientific or research merit for psychologists or psychology students interested in gender or sexuality studies, please do not submit your site to this category; it will be rejected.
Gestalt theory is a broadly interdisciplinary general theory which provides a framework for a wide variety of psychological phenomena, processes, and applications. Human beings are viewed as open systems in active interaction with their environment. It is especially suited for the understanding of order and structure in psychological events, and has its origins in some orientations of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Ernst Mach, and particularly of Christian von Ehrenfels and the research work of Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, Kurt Koffka, and Kurt Lewin, who opposed the elementistic approach to psychological events, associationism, behaviorism, and to psychoanalysis. The coming to power of national socialism substantially interrupted the fruitful scientific development of Gestalt theory in the German-speaking world; Koffka, Wertheimer, Köhler and Lewin emigrated, or were forced to flee, to the United States. Gestalt theory is not limited only to the concept of the Gestalt or the whole, or to the Gestalt principles of the organization of perception (as it is presented in many publications), but must be understood as essentially far broader and more encompassing: - The primacy of the phenomenal: Recognizing and taking seriously the human world of experience as the only immediately given reality, and not simply discussing it away, is a fundamental assertion of Gestalt theory, the fruitfulness of which for psychology and psychotherapy has by no means been exhausted. - It is the interaction of the individual and the situation in the sense of a dynamic field which determines experience and behavior, and not only drives (psychoanalysis, ethology) or external stimuli (behaviorism, Skinner) or static personality traits (classical personality theory). - Connections among psychological contents are more readily and more permanently created on the basis of substantive concrete relationships than by sheer repetition and reinforcement. - Thinking and problem solving are characterized by appropriate substantive organization, restructuring, and centering of the given ('insight') in the direction of the desired solution. - In memory, structures based on associative connections are elaborated and differentiated according to a tendency for optimal organization. - Cognitions which an individual cannot integrate lead to an experience of dissonance and to cognitive processes directed at reducing this dissonance. - In a supra-individual whole such as a group, there is a tendency toward specific relationships in the interaction of strengths and needs. The epistemological orientation of Gestalt theory tends to be a kind of critical realism. Methodologically, the attempt is to achieve a meaningful integration of experimental and phenomenological procedures (the experimental-phenomenological method). Crucial phenomena are examined without reduction of experimental precision. Gestalt theory is to be understood not as a static scientific position, but as a paradigm that is continuing to develop. Through developments such as the theory of the self-organization of systems, it attains major significance for many of the current concerns of psychology.
Humanistic Psychology is closely related to Existential Psychology with more emphasis on nonverbal experience, spiritual experience and altered states of consciousness as means of realizing human potential.
This category is about tests which people can take to help determine which careers they are suitable for.

Please send sites for pre-employment screening services, and career consulting services, to the appropriate subcategory.

Neuropsychology is the study of brain / behavior relationships. There is a substantial body of clinical research and findings and a number of organizations devoted to different aspects of this field of psychology.
Information about people conducting psychological research or practice. Such people are usually in academic, research or institutional settings, and are published authors.
"Personality" is one of the classic chapter headings in the field of psychology, and yet is surprisingly difficult to define. It is used so widely, and in such differing ways, that any singular definition must either be confusingly inclusive or misleadingly specific. Perhaps a definitional approach to personality should be avoided altogether, rather personality should be understood in relation to the schools of thought which characterize it (trait theories, psychoanalytic theories and so on). In its broadest sense personality can be said to be the sum total of all the behavioral and mental characteristics by means of which an individual is recognized as being unique.
This category is for sites which relate directly to personality, especially those with a scientific or educational focus. Please submit sites with a specialized focus to the relevant subcategories (e.g. Journals, Tests etc.) as appropriate.
Positive Psychology is a scientific branch of the social science of psychology that focusses on what is going right with the human mind and behaviour and how to foster these types of well-being on an individual, group and societal level. It steers away from the deficit-focus that psychology has developed in the second part of the 20th century in response to the second world war and the (focus on) mental disorders that resulted from it.
Please only submit sites related directly to positive psychology. Resources on mental well-being and happiness in general do not belong in this subcategory. Thank you.
Contains products and services relevant to the scientific study of psychology, such as experimental testing equipment. If you are looking for a clinical psychologist, try looking in Health/Mental_Health.
Sites offering products or services relevant to scientific psychology researchers are welcome here, unless they would fit better in one of the subcategories listed. Please do not submit sites related to psychotherapy.
A selection of the most useful, informative, and/or interesting sites related to the field of psychoanalytic psychodynamic.
Please submit only sites with content related to psychoanalytic and psychodynamic. Sites must be edited in English.
Psychology of religion is the academic discipline investigating religious experience, belief, and behavior. William James' (1902) Varieties of Religious Experience marked a quarter-century burst of research activity that faded into almost nothing with the advent of behaviorism. Since then the discipline has enjoyed a resurgence in the 1960s with the popularity of social psychology. Psychology of religion currently occupies a small but solid niche within the wider field of psychology.
Please submit only sites related to the academic study of psychology of religion.
Periodicals taking a broad view of academic psychology. Some journals may be fully accessible to the public, or have free access abstracts online; others may be read online only by paying subscribers.
This category is for journals or other periodicals that take a broad view of psychology. If your journal focuses on a particular area of psychology, please submit it directly to the relevant category.
This category deals with all research-related sites that are about psychology in general or cover more than one area.
Please read the descriptions for each of the sub-categories first. Sites which fit into more than one of these sub-categories can be submitted here. Research labs or groups should be submitted to the appropriate area of psychology. Research studies or experiments should be submitted to Tests and Testing (particularly Online Experiments).
Submit only sites related to psychology sensation and perception experiments and labs to this category. Thanks.
Social Psychology (often used as an incorrect synonym of Social Cognition) is the study of social relationships, organizations, and the like. Social Cognition is how we perceive our social surroundings. Herein are links to pages describing them each, as well as raw material, research, and links to author's works on the topics.
Please submit only organizations that relate to the academic study of social psychology.
Category of Tests and Surveys prefers professionally developed and validated tests to be listed here but is not applying that criteria until the category is more comprehensively filled.
Please submit a front page that links to all your experiments, rather than separately submit each experiment. Also, detail the estimated time span of the experiment (e.g. September 2003-June 2004).
Today, a more comprehensive view of human nature is developing. It recognizes our personal uniqueness, as well as a transpersonal dimension of consciousness, something which is beyond our individual egos and yet still a part of us. Based on observations and practices from many cultures, the transpersonal perspective is informed by modern psychology, the humanities and human sciences, as well as contemporary spiritual disciplines and the wisdom traditions.
Please submit sites with a transpersonal theme, i.e. which treat aspects of the individual that have connections beyond the body-mind persona, including higher consciousness and the archetypes and mythology of the human race. This is the branch of psychology pioneered by Jung and further developed by Assagioli, Grof and Wilber amongst others, and widely held as a model in the New Age movement, as well as being the basis for many innovative therapeutic and personal development approaches. Transpersonal Psychology has been developed empirically in contrast to the more objective consciousness research of academic institutions, and could be said to be ''the psychology of enlightenment.''
For psychology, cognitive science, and research-related weblogs and blogs written primarily for or by professionals in psychology.
Please only submit actively updated blogs or weblogs to this category. Thank you.