This section offers categories organized by their focus on specific racial and ethnic groups. Please take the time to locate the most appropriate subcategory prior to suggesting a site. An Ethnic Group is a category or group of people considered to be significantly different from others in terms of cultural (dialect, religion, traditions, etc.) and sometimes physical characteristics (skin color, body shape, etc.).

Sites listed in Society/Ethnicity will focus on a particular Ethnic Group''s culture (i.e. traditions, history, arts, religion and education).

Do not submit sites here in languages other than English or sites about countries or other regions which are served by a category of the Regional hierarchy.

The peoples and cultures of Africa.
Please submit sites about Africa or a particular African country or region to the appropriate category in Regional.

This category is only for sites about ethnic groups.

Aromanian is a dialect of Romanian spoken by some 150,000 people throughout the Balkan Peninsula in Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, FYR Macedonia and Romania.
Only websites in English about the Aromanian community and language should be submitted in this category.

Asia is defined as the continent in Eastern hemisphere bounded by Europe and the Arctic. Cultures represent many nationalities and are rooted in various countries. Please submit listings to their respective country of origin. If it represents American interests list it at

  • Asian-American

  • Asian American represents a variety of cultures and diverse origins. Please submit your site to the respective nationality it represents. If it details issues concerning Asian American culture and heritage, please submit it to the Resources category. If your site pertains to Asian countries, then submit it to the Regional category.
    1 : a member of a division of the early Indo-European peoples who swept into Western Europe around 500 BC and occupied the lands west of the Rhine; England, Belgium, France, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany and Galicia: or 2 : a modern Gael, Highland Scot, Irishman, Welshman, Cornishman, or Breton, or a descendant of these peoples dispersed throughout the world through immigration. Celtic culture then is the culture (music, language, legends, religion, sports, humour, dance or writings) of these people or their descendants. Category for sites relating to two or more of the Celtic ethnicities, or for Celtic culture as a whole. Also contains links to other categories on aspects or subsets of Celtic peoples and culture.
    Please follow the links to find the most specific possible category to submit your site to; this will make the listing process faster and more accurate.
    Sites listed here are about the arts or folk arts of the culture. Contemporary arts that are generally world wide should not be listed. Instead send those to the appropriate category of Arts

    Sites and pertaining to people of ethnic or linguistic Dutch extraction.

    The people of England; people with origins in that nation. A people speaking a Germanic language evolved from that of Anglo-Saxon peoples from Continental Europe who invaded and settled in lowland Britain, which became known as England (the land of the Angles.)
    The focus of the Society: Ethnicity: European category is the cultural and national identity of the various ethnicity and nationality groups that originated in, or are associated with, Europe. Most sites found here are focused on the interests of people who emigrated, or whose ancestors emigrated, from Europe to another part of the world, or from one European country to another.
    Unless your site is relevant to European ethnicity in general (this is unlikely), suggest it to the category for the specific European ethnic group or nationality it is relevant to.

    Sites suggested to this category are very unlikely to be reviewed in a timely manner, unless they deal with European ethnicity in general.

    Finnic and Ugric are two groups of ethnicities that share a common linguistic background, together they form the Finno-Ugric group.
    Please only submit sites that have English content.
    Web sites dealing with French history, culture, and language. Everything that defines the French identity of today. May include sites about Francophones around the world.
    Please submit only sites that deal with German-Americans. Sites that pertain to Germans in general, or countries outside of the United States and Canada should be submitted to the appropriate category, even if it takes some searching.
    Sites about the Haitian culture in diaspora.
    Sites focused on Haiti itself should be submitted to Regional/Caribbean/Haiti/Society_and_Culture
    The Hispanic and Latino category focuses on American Latinos, including, but not limited to, Mexican-Americans/Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Cuban-Americans, and Central and South Americans living in the United States.
    The Hispanic and Latino category focuses on American Latinos, including, but not limited to, Mexican-Americans/Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Cuban-Americans, and Central and South Americans living in the United States.
    The people who inhabited a particular country or region prior to its settlement in historic times by immigrants. The word "indigenous" or "native" is used to distinguish such peoples from the later arrivals.
    People of Italy; people with origins in Italy. Sites pertaining to the study of Italian ethnicity. Sites about or related to Italy or a place in Italy should be submitted to the relevant category in Regional: Europe: Italy.
    This category is for websites strictly concerning people who claim to be of more than one racial racial or ethnic background without adhering to one race or ethnic group moreso than any of the others.
    this category is for sites concerning combinations of racial and ethnic groups, such as Asian-European. it is not for combinations of racial groups and nationalities, such as African American or Hispanics in Australia. they are not necessarily multiracial.

    it is not for groups, which claim to identify with a particular race although having various racial backgrounds because they are still choosing one race.

    Sites listed here are for news services, newspapers, books, magazines and e-zines, and journals that are sources of information related to the cultural aspect of the ethnicity rather than the geographic area.
    For sites about the culture and activities of people of Portuguese heritage around the world.
    Includes links to religious and spiritual sites related to the culture. Topics might include churches or other places of worship, religious and spiritual organizations, issues, or guides to worship.

    Roma (Gypsies)

    The Roma are a distinct ethnic minority whose origins began on the Indian subcontinent over one thousand years ago. Why the Roma left India is clouded in uncertainty, yet they entered southeastern Europe in the last quarter of the 13th Century. Because they arrived in Europe from the East, they were thought by the first Europeans to be from Turkey, Nubia or Egypt, or any number of non-European places. They were called, among other things, Egyptians or ‘Gyptians, which is where the word "Gypsy" comes from. In some places, this Egyptian identity was taken entirely seriously, and was no doubt borrowed by the early Roma themselves.

    In Europe, Roma were either kept in slavery in the Balkans from the 14th century (officially abolished in 1864), or else moved into the rest of the European continent, reaching every northern and western country by about 1500. The fragmentation of the Romani population occurred on a major scale after their arrival into Europe in the 14th century. Once in Europe, their particular ability to adjust to outside groups continued, and in some places, the Romani element was dominant enough to assimilate outsiders. In other places, the Romani element was too small to maintain its discrete identity and it was lost, while contributing to the group into which they were absorbed. The Romani population has grown differently in different places, to the point that one group may deny the legitimacy of another group. But all groups maintain to a greater or lesser degree the barrier between who is Roma and who is not. Thus there are populations of Romani who have incorporated a substantial foreign genetic element from outside of India, but who remain in terms of their own self-perception Roma, and who speak Romanes. In the course of time, as a result of having interacted with various European populations, and being fragmented into widely-separated groups, Roma have emerged as a collection of distinct ethnic groups within the larger whole. There are many groups of Roma, including (but not limited to) the Kalderash, Machavaya, Lovari, Churari, Romanichal, Gitanoes, Kalo, Sinti, Rudari, Manush, Boyash, Ungaritza, Luri, Bashaldé, Romungro, and Xoraxai.

    Romani culture is diverse with many traditions and customs, and all groups around the world have their own individual beliefs and tenets. There is no universal culture per se, but there are attributes common to all Roma, including: loyalty to family (extended and clan); Romaniya, standards and norms, varying in degree from tribe to tribe; and adaptability to changing conditions. Integration of many Roma into gajikané (non-Roma, or foreign) culture due to settlement has diluted many Romani cultural values and beliefs. Not all groups have the same definition of who and what is "Roma." What may be accepted as "true-Roma" by one group may be gadjé to another. It would be invalid to generalize and oversimplify by giving concrete rules to all Roma. Despite what some groups may believe, there is no one group that can call themselves the one, "true" Roma.

    Today, the following characteristics apply to the many Roma groups and communities around the world:

    • Roma may be nomadic, semi-sedentary, or sedentary;
    • Roma speak many dialects of Romanes, and some Roma may not speak Romanes at all;
    • Roma may live in rural or urban areas;
    • Some Roma groups are predominately illiterate, while other groups stress at least a minimum of literacy in their host country's language for its community members.

    The Romani people have been known by many names, including Gypsies (or Gipsies), Tsigani, Tzigane, Cigano, Zigeuner, and others. Most Roma have always referred to themselves by their tribal names, or as Rom or Roma, meaning "Man" or "People." (Rom, Roma, Romani, and Romaniya should not be confused with the country of Romania, or the city of Rome. These names have separate, distinct etymological origins and are not related.) The use of Rom, Roma, Romani, or the double "r" spelling (Rrom, Rroma, Rromani), is preferred in all official communications and legal documents. The trend is to eliminate the use of derogatory, pejorative and offensive names, such as Gypsies, and to be given proper respect by the use of the self-appelation of Roma, or Rroma. Gypsies, although offensive to most Roma, is still a proper name, and as such, must always be capitalized.

    The Romani language is of Indo-Aryan origin and has many spoken dialects, some of which are not mutually intelligible. The root language of Romani is ancient Punjabi with loan words borrowed from the many countries the migrations of the Roma have taken them. The spoken Romani language is varied, but all dialects contain some common words in use by all Roma.

    Integration and assimilation into gajikane society have always threatened the preservation of Romani customs, traditions and language. The Roma ability to adapt to new environments in order to survive has been responsible for the loss of many customs forgotten with time. Understanding these threats can prevent the further loss of a unique and ancient culture.

    There have been many large-scale, state-sponsored persecutions, or pogroms, against the Roma throughout European history. The Nazi terror of World War II is the most infamous and is responsible for the deaths of up to 1.5 million Roma in the Porrajmos (in Romani meaning the Devouring). The recent collapse of the communist governments of Eastern Europe have rekindled anti-Roma sentiment in Eastern and Western Europe. Violent attacks against Romani immigrants and refugees have been permitted to occur with little or no restraint from government authorities.

    The Romani people remain the least integrated and the most persecuted people of Europe. Almost everywhere, their fundamental civil rights are threatened. Although the Roma originated from India, they have no homeland they can call their own; therefore they have no government that will speak for them and protect them.

    The wheel-shaped, sixteen-spoked chakra, was adopted at the First World Romani Congress in London in 1971 as the international Romani symbol. The green and blue flag with a red chakra in the center was adopted as the Romani flag, as well as the motto "Opré Roma" (Roma Arise). The song "Gelem, gelem" was selected as the Romani anthem; and April 8 was proclaimed International Romani Day. There have been four World Romani Congresses to date.

    Today, Roma are using the Internet to display pride in culture, language and solidarity with other Roma worldwide. The affordability and immediacy of the Internet provides a voice for the Roma, a voice that attempts to educate the public about a misunderstood and much maligned culture.

    By Harold Joseph Fontenot, 20 June 1999. Thanks go to Marko Courbet and Ian Hancock for their contributions to this category description.

    The Sami (Saami or Sámi), previously known as Lapps, are the native and indigenous population of the northern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. They inhabit the Arctic and subarctic areas of Norway, Sweden, Finland and western Russia. Their languages belong to the Finno-Ugric languages.

    Please submit sites about the Croats here. Sites listed in this category must offer some information in English. Sites entirely in the Croatian language should be submitted to an appropriate subcategory of World: Hrvatski.

    Sites in English about the Croatian language and the country of Croatia have their own categories elsewhere.

    This category covers the ethnic groups which originate in the Caribbean, and North, Central, and South America.